Tuesday, May 5, 2009

LOBSTER




Clawed lobsters compose a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. Lobsters are economically important as seafood, forming the basis of a global industry that nets US$1.8 billion in trade annually.[citation needed]
Though several different groups of crustaceans are known as "lobsters," the clawed lobsters are most often associated with the name. Clawed lobsters are not closely related to spiny lobsters or slipper lobsters, which have no claws (chelae), or squat lobsters. The closest relatives of clawed lobsters are the reef lobster Enoplometopus and the three families of freshwater crayfish.

Biology
Lobsters are invertebrates and are found all over the world. They have a hard protective exoskeleton. Like most arthropods, lobsters must molt in order to grow, leaving them vulnerable during this time. During the molting process, several species may experience a change in color. Lobsters have 10 legs, with the front ones adapted to claws.
Lobsters live on rocky, sandy, or muddy bottoms from the shoreline to beyond the edge of the continental shelf. They generally live singly in crevices or in burrows under rocks.
Lobsters typically eat live food, consisting of fish, molluscs, other crustaceans, worms, and some plant life. Occasionally, they will scavenge if necessary, and may resort to cannibalism in captivity; however, this has not been observed in the wild. Although lobster skin has been found in the stomachs of lobsters, this is because lobsters will eat their shed skin after molting.[1] Lobsters grow throughout their lives and it is not unusual for a lobster to live for more than 100 years.[2] In fact, lobsters may exhibit "negligible senescence", in that they can effectively live indefinitely, barring injury, disease, capture, etc.[3] They can thus reach impressive sizes. According to the Guinness World Records, the largest lobster was caught in Nova Scotia, Canada, and weighed 20.15 kg (44.4 lb).
Although clawed lobsters, like most other arthropods, are largely bilaterally symmetrical, they often possess unequal, specialized claws, like the king crab. A freshly caught lobster will have a claw which is full and fleshy, not atrophied. The anatomy of the lobster includes the cephalothorax which is the head fused with the thorax, both of which are covered by the carapace, of chitinous composition, and the abdomen. The lobster's head consists of antennae, antennules, mandibles, the first and second maxillae, and the first, second, and third maxillipeds. Because a lobster lives in a murky environment at the bottom of the ocean, its vision is poor and it mostly uses its antennae as sensors. Studies have shown that the lobster eye is formed with a reflective structure atop a convex retina. In contrast, most complex eyes use refractive ray concentrators (lenses) and a concave retina.[4] The abdomen of the lobster includes swimmerets and its tail is composed of uropods and the telson.
Lobsters, like snails and spiders, have blue blood due to the presence of haemocyanin, which contains copper.[5] (In contrast, mammals and many other animals, have red blood due to the presence of haemoglobin, which contains iron.) Inside lobsters is a green goopy substance called tomalley, which serves as the hepatopancreas, fulfilling the functions of both liver and pancreas.[6]
In general, lobsters move slowly by walking on the bottom of the sea floor. However, when they are in danger and need to flee, they swim backwards quickly by curling and uncurling their abdomen. A speed of 5 meters per second (about 11 mph) has been recorded.[7] This is known as the caridoid escape reaction.

Symbion

The genus Symbion, the only member of the animal phylum Cycliophora, has only been found on the gills and mouthparts of lobsters.[8]
Gastronomy
LobsterNutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 100 kcal 410 kJ
150%
Percentages are relative to USrecommendations for adults.Source: USDA Nutrient database

A 3 kg European lobster

A dish including a European lobster, Dubrovnik

Japanese lobster served in creamy butter sauce
Lobster is a valued food product; well-known recipes include Lobster Newberg and Lobster Thermidor. Lobster is best eaten fresh, and they are normally purchased live. Lobsters are usually shipped and sold with their claws banded to prevent them from injuring each other or the purchaser. Lobsters cannot open and close the claws when they are banded, which causes the claws to begin to atrophy inside the shell. Recently banded lobsters will not show this, and the claws will be full. Many restaurants that serve lobster keep a tank of the live creatures, often allowing patrons to pick their own.
Lobsters are generally prepared and cooked while they are still alive, even though both claws may have been removed. Most cooks place the live lobster into a pot of boiling water or steam which kills it. Lobsters are also served fried, grilled, or baked. Freezing the lobster may toughen the meat. A common misconception is that one can hear a lobster scream as it is boiled; this is likely due to steam escaping the shell, creating a whistling noise.
When boiling, the lobster is simmered for 7 minutes for the first pound and 3 minutes for each additional pound.[9]
The majority of the meat is in the tail and the two front claws, but smaller quantities can be found in the legs and torso. Lobster can be boiled or steamed, or used in a wide array of dishes and salads. It can be served as soup or bisque or mixed with mayonnaise or salad dressing for lobster rolls. Lobster meat is often dipped in clarified butter, resulting in a sweetened flavor. Lobster, like all shellfish, is not considered kosher.

History
The European wild lobster, including the royal blue lobster of Audresselles, is more expensive and rare than the American lobster. It was consumed chiefly by the royal and aristocratic families of France and the Netherlands. Such scenes were depicted in Dutch paintings of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
In North America, the American lobster did not become a popular food until the mid-19th century, when New Yorkers and Bostonians developed a taste for the species; not until the invention of a special vessel, the lobster smack, was a commercial fishery able to flourish.[10] Prior to this time, eating lobster was considered a mark of poverty or as a food for indentured servants or lower members of society in Maine, Massachusetts and the Canadian Maritimes. Prior to the American Revolutionary War, dock workers in Boston went on strike, protesting having to eat lobster more than three times a week [citation needed]. Lobsters were also used as a fertilizer for farms.[citation needed] In Canada, outside of the rural outports lobster was sold canned; New England's fresh lobster trade extended at least as far south as Philadelphia.
The market for lobster changed with the development of the modern transportation industry that allowed live lobsters to be shipped from the ports to large urban centres. Fresh lobster quickly became a luxury food and a tourist attraction for the Maritime provinces and Maine and an export to Europe and Japan where it is especially expensive.
The high price of lobster has led to the marketing of "faux lobster" which is clearly labeled as such. It is often made from pollock or other whitefish that has been altered to look and taste similar to lobster. A few restaurants sell "langostino lobster". Langostino translates into prawn; however, the actual animal is probably a crab. Maine fishermen are upset that restaurants are passing off the fake as lobster. The spiny lobster is also called langouste.
Catching
This box: viewtalkedit
The usual method of catching lobsters has been to use baited, one-way traps located underwater with a color-coded marker buoy at the surface so that fishermen can find their cages. Lobster is fished in water between 1 and 500 fathoms, although the animal itself may range to 2,000 fathoms in some species. Cages may be made of plastic-coated galvanized steel or wood. A single lobsterman may tend between 10 and 2,000 traps depending on the fishery. Around the year 2000, due to overfishing of some species and demand overwhelming supply, many countries began to try lobster farming, which is similar to fish farming.[11] As of 2008, no lobster farming operation has achieved commercial success.

Capacity for pain
See also: Pain#In other species
The question of whether or not lobsters can experience pain is unresolved. Because of the ambiguous nature of suffering, most people who contend that lobsters do have this capacity approach the issue using 'argument by analogy' — that is, they hold that certain similarities between lobsters' and humans' biology or behavior warrant an assumption that lobsters can feel pain.[12]
In February 2005, a review of the literature by the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety tentatively concluded that "it is unlikely that [lobsters] can feel pain," though they note that "there is apparently a paucity of exact knowledge on sentience in crustaceans, and more research is needed." This conclusion is based on the lobster's simple nervous system. The report assumes that the violent reaction of lobsters to boiling water is a reflex to noxious stimuli.[13]
However, review by the Scottish animal rights group Advocate for Animals released in the same year reported that "scientific evidence ... strongly suggests that there is a potential for [lobsters] to experience pain and suffering," primarily because lobsters (and other decapod crustaceans) "have opioid receptors and respond to opioids (analgesics such as morphine) in a similar way to vertebrates," indicating that lobsters' reaction to injury changes when painkillers are applied. The similarities in lobsters' and vertebrates' stress systems and behavioral responses to noxious stimuli were given as additional evidence for their capacity for pain.[12]
A 2007 study at Queen's University, Belfast, suggested that crustaceans do feel pain.[14] In the experiment, when the antennae of prawns were rubbed with sodium hydroxide or acetic acid, the animals showed increased grooming of the afflicted area and rubbed it more against the side of the tank. Moreover, this reaction was inhibited by a local anesthetic, even though control prawns treated with only anesthetic did not show reduced activity. Professor Robert Elwood, who headed the study, argues that sensing pain is crucial to prawn survival, because it encourages them to avoid damaging behaviors. Some scientists responded, saying the rubbing may reflect an attempt to clean the affected area.[15]
In a subsequent 2009 study, Prof. Elwood and Mirjam Appel showed that hermit crabs make motivational tradeoffs between shocks and the quality of the shells they inhabit.[16] In particular, as crabs are shocked more intensely, they become increasingly willing to leave their current shells for new shells, and they spend less time deciding whether to enter those new shells. Moreover, because the researchers did not offer the new shells until after the electrical stimulation had ended, the change in motivational behavior was the result of memory of the noxious event, not an immediate reflex.

Opioids

Moche lobster, 200 A.D., Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru

World's largest lobster sculpture in Shediac, New Brunswick.
In vertebrates, endogenous opioids are neurochemicals that moderate pain by interacting with opiate receptors. Opioid peptides and opiate receptors occur naturally in crustaceans, and although “at present no certain conclusion can be drawn,”[13] some have interpreted their presence as an indication that lobsters may be able to experience pain.[13][12] The aforementioned Scottish paper holds that lobsters' opioids may "mediate pain in the same way" as in vertebrates.[12]
Morphine, an analgesic, and naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, may affect a related species of crustacean (Chasmagnathus granulatus) in much the same way they affect vertebrates: injections of morphine into crabs produced a dose-dependent reduction of their defensive response to an electric shock.[17] (However, the attenuated defensive response could originate from either the analgesic or sedative properties of morphine, or both)[18] These findings have been replicated for other invertebrate species,[18] but similar data is not yet available for lobsters.

[edit] Animal welfare issues
The most common way of killing a lobster is by placing it, live, in boiling water, or by splitting: severing the body in half, lengthwise.
The boiling method (also used to kill crabs, crayfish and shrimp) is controversial because some believe that the lobster suffers. The practice is illegal in some places, such as in Reggio Emilia, Italy, where offenders face fines of up to 495.[19] The Norwegian study states that the lobster may be de-sensitized by placing it in a salt solution 15 minutes before killing it.
Some stores will kill a lobster upon purchase by microwaving it. Whether or not death occurs more quickly than when the lobster is dropped in boiling water is not clear. There are, however, locations where the sale of a dead lobster to be eaten is illegal, including Massachusetts, USA.[20]
In 2006, British inventor Simon Buckhaven invented the CrustaStun, which electrocutes lobsters with a 110 V electric shock, killing them in about five seconds. This ensures a quicker death for the lobster. Seafood wholesalers in Britain already use a commercial version. A home version was available about 2006.

Lobsters in culture
The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped the sea and its animals. Lobsters were often depicted in their art.[21]
In Lewis Carroll's Alice in wonderland, chapter 10, there is a poem entitled "'Tis the Voice of the Lobster."
The species of Dr. Zoidberg from the cartoon Futurama is distantly related to Earth lobsters.

List of clawed lobster species
This list contains all known species in the family Nephropidae
(sumber wikipidea )

Saturday, February 28, 2009

MANCING SEPIT BIRU DI PASIR LAYANG




Tepat jam 10 pagi 28.2.09 , aku bersama raja pancing sungai Lebir turun sekali lagi beraksi memancing di Kawasan memancing popular di Pasir Layang. Dengan menggunakan umpan anak udang aku tidak mengambil masa yang lama untuk merasai rentapan ikan ubi dan ikan belida . Hampir dua jam mengail kami memperolehi hasil tangkapan yang agak lumayan.

Monday, February 16, 2009

LUBUK MEMANCING SEPIT BIRU DI KAWASAN KELANTAN SELANTAN




Lubuk-lubuk yang menjadi intipan para pemburu sepit biru


1. LUBUK TOK BIDAN


2. LUBUK TOK JADI


3. LUBUK MANJONG


4. PASIR IRA


5. KUALA PAHI


6. LUBUK BEKOK


7. LUBUK TUKUM

Saturday, February 7, 2009

TEKNIK PANCING

Teknik Mengawal Joran
Tabiat sesetengah ikan terutama ikan yang bermain didasar laut atau sungai, untuk melepaskan diri ialah dengan cara melarikan diri di celah-celah batu karang atau pokok-pokok tumbang atau dicelah akar kayu. Apa yang perlu anda lakukan, cuba halang perkara ini daripada berlaku dan ia memerlukan kemahiran tertentu. Jika ikan sempat mencari perlindungan, anda akan tertewas tapi jika anda ketatkan butang tarikan pada kekili, tali akan putus. Teknik yang sebaiknya ialah:-
Dengan cara menjatuhkan hujung batang joran selari dengan tarikan ikan tersebut. Biarkan ikan menarik tali itu dalam keadaan lurus.
Selepas itu anda tarik semula tali pancing dengan mengangkat batang joran dalam keadaan selari dengan tarikan ikan itu.
Perlu diingatkan, ketika anda menjatuhkan hujung joran ketika ia menerima tarikan, acap kali ikan berkenaan akan berhenti buat seketika. Jika keadaan seperti ini berlaku, masa itulah anda kawal ikan tersebut dengan melawan tarikannya pula.
Dengan berbuat begini kemungkinan besar anda pasti berjaya menewaskannya.

DRIFT FISHING

Definition: Surface-midwater fishing from a stationary boat.
It is necessary to attract fish to the stationary boat and chum is often used. Because of the risk of shark and large fish attack, medium (30-50lb) to heavy (80-130lb) tackle is recommended.
Technique:
If using live fish, attach hook to dorsal fish. Attach balloon or bottle 10 -20 m from bait depending on depth of bait required. The use of a wire swivel and some light weights can be used to attain the appropriated depth. The float is then released 50 m from the boat. The balloon serves 2 purposes:
1. The balloon is larger than the standard float which will be necessary to be visible at 50-100 m from the boat
2. When the balloon escapes the line, this serves as warning that the fish has taken the bait.

TROLLING

Definition - dragging bait / lures behind a moving boat.
Trolling is done at the surface (mostly), midwater and floor depending on the type of fish attempted.

Specifics:
The larger and faster the fish, the all above categories will increase. That is, heavier tackle, line, hooks, leaders, increased trolling speed and distance.
Although there is no 1 standard to catch all fish, in the medium category, I suggest:
1. 30 lb quality monofilament, 600 metres
2. Baitcaster reel
3. 15 kg class rod – with rollers
4. 5 meters of 80 lb monofilament leader
5. 20 cm of 100 lb steel wire
6. Rapala magnum CD 14 lures (orange or red-white)
7. Trolling distance 50 metres

SURF CASTING

Definition: Fishing from the shore.
Two types:
Using leaders, bait and sinkers, similar to bottom fishing (It is convinient to use an apollo hook configuration)
Fishing with artificial lures
Although it is said that many large fish come within 6 metres from the shore to feed on the marine creatures brought up from the sand due to the action of the waves, Singapore waters have qualities that requires special consideration
Many of our shores are over-fished, frequently disturbed and polluted. It may be necessary to cast further out. Light and long rods (9-16 feet) with lines of 0.20 and above are recommended. Light rods are especially important when using artificial lures, for easy cast and return. Light line must be balanced with large spool capacity of at least 200 m. A good cast can achieve 100-200 m of distance on spinning and multiplier reels but requires a fair bit of skill.
Many good fishing areas still remain, but are usually difficult to access or restricted. 3-5 kg snakeheads (off Tuas caught with live catfish hooked to a 12 metre nylon rope and thrown into the water), good size groupers, 5-15 kg stingrays, barramundi, tengerri have been brought up.

Bait

The type of bait really depends on the type of fish in the locality and what they are known to feed on. Generally for sea fishing, marine organisms make the best bait e.g., fish, prawns, squid, crab etc.

In the Singapore & Malaysian waters, live prawns and fish (live or filet) are the best all-rounder baits. Around the northeastern coastal waters of Singapore, ie Pongol, Changi and Ubin, live prawns prove useful for day fishing. For night fishing, kelong-caught squid and live mullet (Ohr Haer/Belanak) of 10-15 cm, selar and tamban are recommended.

Live fish can be caught by net of jigging. Fresh squid is expensive and can be bought from kelongs and Kangar wholesale market at dawn.

Other bait include crabs, which are favorites with groupers and parrot fish – flower crabs quartered with the claws removed or those small brownish crabs along the rocky breakwater, used whole with the claws removed again.

Wolf herring (Ikan Parang), Ikan Tonggol (Bonito) and Queenfish are other good fish bait.

When using filet or strips of squid or fish, cut it into long strips. Movement of these strips in the water / current mimics live bait. For live fish, attach the hook on the lip or close to the dorsal fin, which prevents them from dying and enable them to continue swimming. As many predatory fish snap up whole fish from the back on centre of the bait, hooking near the dorsal fin (centre of the fish) is a better choice.
Attaching the bait to the hook
Back to Pancing Dot Com

Lokasi dan penggunaan umpan

A. Umpan Laut Dalam

Kebanyakan umpan yang digunakan disini lebih kepada penggunaan Umpan segar dan hidup. Kebiasaan sebelum melakukan aktiviti memancing , usaha mencari umpan hidup akan dilakukan dengan kebanyakannya menggunakan Apollo.
Umpan Ikan Segar spt. Ikan Kembung, Selar, Tamban, Tongkol dll.
Gewang (Rapala)
Sotong Hidup
( Ikan Utama: Tenggeri, Jemuduk, Pari, Alu-Alu, Merah, Yu dll )

B. Umpan Air Masin (terutama bahagian Muara Laut)
Udang Hidup
Perumpun
Tamban
Wat Wat Bakau
Hirisan Ikan
Gewang
(Ikan Utama: Siakap,Jenahak, Kaci, Tebal Pipi, Sembilang, Tetanda dll )

C. Umpan Ikan Air Tawar (Hulu-Hulu Sungai spt. Tmn. Negara)
Umpan dikawasan ini lebih kepada pembacaan tentang ikan-ikan yang menjadi penghuni sesatu-satu tempat.
Kelapa Sawit
Buah Neram
Ulat Sagu
Cengkerik
Ubi Kayu
Cacing Tanah
Perut Ayam
Gewang (mengilat)
( Ikan Utama: Kelah, Sebarau, Tengas, Kejor, Baung, Kalui, Kelisa dll )

D. Umpan Sungai (Lombong,Anak Sungai & Tali Air)
Katak
Cacing
Anak Udang
Pisang
Tepung & Dedak (Hong)
Roti
Anak Ikan
Hati Ayam
Telur Kerengga
(Ikan Utama: Haruan, Patin, Talapia, Rohu, Lampam, Toman, Bujuk dll)

E. Umpan Udang Galah, telah menjadi kebiasaan umum Umpan utama ialah Cacing Tanah.
Cacing Tanah
Wat-Wat
Anak Ikan Gapi
Hirisan Sotong (dipotong halus)
Anak Udang
(Tangkapan Utama: Udang Galah,tapi adakalanya mengena ikan seperti Baung, Belida, Duri dan Anak-anak Ikan Sungai)

PICKING THE RIGHT COLOR
Consider the conditions around you. Clear water or cloudy water? Calm Surface or broken surface? Is the sun high or low? Is the sky clear or overcast? How deep does the Rapala you're using run? Now that you have the immediate conditions, here are the guidelines to immediate selections:
CLEAR On clear days or in clear water, the silver (S) Rapala is recommended.CLEAR, DEEP When fishing deep in clear conditions, the silver/blue (SB) Rapala is recommended. Blue maintains its color deeper.DARK On dark days or in dark water, the gold (G) Rapala is the best.TURBID In muddy or low visibility water, use a gold/fluorescent red (GFR) Rapala. Also very effective when fishing in the spawning cycle or territorial.DARK,DEEP In extremely poor lighting or very deep water, the silver/fluorescent chartreuse (SFC) and Firetiger(F) works best.
THE STIMULATOR COLORSThese are the colors that were created to simulate specific forage species.
RAINBOW TROUT (RT) Especially effective wherever there are salmon, trout or chubs present.PERCH (P) An excellent silhouette lure wherever poor light and clarity conditions exist. Surprisingly good on dark days.FIRETIGER (FT) Bright finish is the perfect attractant when fishing dark water.CRAWDAD (CW) For use wherever crayfish are present or as a silhouette diving lure on dark days.SHAD (SD) The most universal forage color for use in clear conditions.MACKEREL (GM) Green for dark conditions, blue for clear.REDHEAD (RH) The wildcard lure color. Creates aggression. Teases strikes.
Be sure to check the locals for colors that work in their area. You may find rainbow trout colors catching fish where there are no rainbow trout or dark water Rapalas catching fish at high noon on a clear day.



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Wednesday, February 4, 2009

udang galah/ sepit biru


Udang galah atau nama saintifiknya Macrobrachium rosenbergii merupakan sejenis udang air tawar yang diternak secara komersil.

SEPIT BIRU

video

Sunday, February 1, 2009

sepit biru

Di laman blog ini saya akan membicarakan tentang aktiviti dan pengalaman saya dan rakan –rakan berkaitan dengan aktiviti memancing.

Pada cuti Tahun Baru Cina yang lalu iaitu pada 24.01.2009 saya telah berkesempatan turun ke sungai , setelah hampir lapan tahun tidak turun ke sungai untuk melabuhkan joran.Gian untuk melontarkan joran ke dalam sungai akan terlepas juga pada hari ini.Seperti yang dijanjikan tepat jam 9..30 pagi saya telah turun ke sungai bersama Raja Pancing Sungai Lebir.iaitu Abe Abe ialah seorang yang pakar di dalam mengail sepit biru. Dengan menaiki bot Abe yang panjangnya 22 kaki kami membelah sungai Lebir menuju ke lubuk-lubuk Sepit Biru. Pemandangan di kiri kanan sungai adalah amat menarik sekali , dengan berpuluh –puluh pengail yang berada di tebing sungai mencuba nasib untuk menaikan sepit biru. Di sungai Lebir ini terdapat banyak lubuk -lubuk yang dalam yang dihuni oleh sang sepit biru. Setelah membelah sungai hampir sejam ,kami pun sampai di lubuk yang menjadi buruan pengail sang Sepit Biru. Lubuk yang terletak berhampiran dengan kampung Majong itu adalah sangat dalam dan menjadi buruan para pemancing. Saya dan Abe tanpa melengahkan masa terus melabuhkan joran . Maka bermulalah pesta menaikan sepit biru antara saya dan Abe. Setelah lengoh tangan memutar mesin kail menaikan sepit biru , saya dan Abe berpatah balik ke pengkalan di bawah jambatan Manik Urai. saya dan Abe rasa berpuas hati pada trip mengail sepit biru pada hari ini kerana mempereolehi hasil tangkapan yang boleh dikatakan lumayan juga.